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The topic of loading up a lot of questions. This is due to the fact that the large vehicle manufacturers often do not provide technical data but simply load times. Without the tech background, this can seem confusing and daunting. Here we want to explain to you how electric cars are charged.
First we have to divide charging into two categories: AC charging and DC charging (whereby the AC charging topic is the more extensive one)
The abbreviation "AC" stands for "Alternating Current" (English) which simply means "Alternating Current" in German.Alternating current is what comes from a typical household socket (the technical explanation can be dispensed with here, we recommend YouTube and Wikipedia to those interested)
With AC charging, the charger is in the vehicle (also known as the on-board charger). This means that the car is supplied directly with alternating current.
In the car, the charger converts the alternating current into direct current (DC). A battery can only be charged with direct current. "DC" stands for "Direct Current", which means "DC" in German.
There are three different cases of AC charging, which are shown graphically below:
Charging at the Schuko socket:
Every electric vehicle has at least one cable
(Type 2 charging cable single-phase Schuko) as shown in this graphic
included. So everyone at home can use a common household
Charge the socket.
Furthermore, every electric car has an on-board charger, the
can be charged at least single-phase with such a cable .
This cable usually has a "loading tile" in which
a switch is located, which releases the charge.
The graphic shows that a total of 3 lines from the
Lead the socket to the vehicle:
- PE (protective earth) is the protective conductor
- N is the neutral conductor
- L1 is a phase that supplies the current
This means that charging is carried out in one phase in this case. Schuko sockets can withstand (in the worst case) around 10-12A current, which means that charging should be carried out with an output of ~ 2.5 kW. Depending on the vehicle, this means a range gain of 10 km per hour to 15 km per hour. This means that a range of over 100 km can be recharged overnight or while working. The somewhat more robust camping plug (blue) can last 16A.
Charging at the CEE socket
Some vehicles have an on-board charger, which even
can charge the battery with three phases. In principle there are then three
Chargers installed that do exactly the same as in the first example.
The three-phase alternating current is also called three-phase current.
Three-phase charging cables with a "charging tile" are usually optional
available. The way it works is also the same as with the first one
Example. CEE sockets can continuously deliver a current of 16A
deliver what is more than 1.5 times the Schuko socket, and
that on all three phases: L1, L2 and L3.
This results in a charging power of 11 kW, so a
Charge an electric car for a range of around 50 km to 70 km per hour.
A vehicle can theoretically do this overnight or while working
be fully charged with a range of 500 km,
Charging at the wallbox / at the AC charging station
There is even an AC charging station in almost every small town.
Every electric car can charge here, but at different speeds.
The limiting factor here is the on-board charger.
The same applies to the wallbox. Both wall boxes and
N AC charging station is available with different services:
- Charging column with Schuko socket (2.3 kW)
- Single-phase wallbox (3.6 kW)
- Three-phase charging station 16A (11 kW)
- Wallbox three-phase 16A (11 kW)
- Three-phase charging station 32A (22 kW)
- Wallbox three-phase 32A (22 kW)
- Three-phase charging station 64A (43 kW) (only mentioned for the sake of completeness)
An electric car always tries (depending on the setting) with the maximum
Load power. However, if the charging point cannot deliver this power,
then the electric car adapts to the performance of the charging point.
However, the charging point can deliver more power than the electric car
can charge, then the electric car will limit the charging power.
Brief example: - Electric car with 11 kW on-board charger charges on a single-phase wallbox = charging power: 3.6 kW
- Electric car with 11 kW on-board charger charges at a charging station (22 kW) = Charging power: 11 kW
Incidentally, about 100 km to 150 km per hour can be recharged at a wallbox or charging station with 22 kW charging power, which would mean a range gain of over 1,000 km over a 10-hour working day.
Conclusion AC charging
Even with the lowest charging power at the Schuko socket, a range of well over 100 km can be recharged overnight or while working, which covers everyday needs. The 2.3 kW charging power is roughly comparable to the power of a hair dryer or a kettle.
If there is no way to charge at home, an electric car still makes sense: Many employers are up to date strive for a climate-friendly appearance and are happy to provide free charging options.
As already described above, "DC" means direct current in German. This charging technology is also known colloquially as "rapid charging". The charging standard that has become established for direct current charging in Europe is called "CCS". This stands for Combined Charging System (English) in German as much as Combined Charging System. As described above, there is a type 2 plug under which two large contacts for the direct current are located.
With CCS charging, the charger is not in the vehicle but in the charging station. This enables charging capacities of up to 350 kW
can be achieved. Such rapid charging columns are usually found on
Motorways, in cities there are often 50 kW fast charging stations.
But even with a charging capacity of 50 kW can within a
Hour a range of 250 km to 300 km can be recharged.
With CCS charging , it behaves the same as with AC charging:
There are vehicles that can quickly charge a maximum of 30 kW and
some can fast charge with 300 kW. Even on a 350 kW
A car that only needs 50 kW can be charged quickly
only supports charging with 50 kW. A vehicle that has 150 kW
Can fast charge, can only charge 50 kW on a 50 kW column.
Why full charging at a fast charging station from the vehicle
Manufacturers only ever state up to 80% state of charge and
you will find out why these are usually 30 minutes in the category
Conclusion DC charging
Even now, as an electric car driver, you don't have to worry about range
have more. There are about every 50 to 100 km on the motorway
Fast charging stations where you can reach at least 150 km in 30 minutes
reloads. If you can't charge at home, you may have in your
Area around a fast charging station where he can supply his car.
However, the AC charging points are sufficient for everyday use
completely off. The assumption that everyone will be at 6 p.m. in the evening
Plugging the car into a fast charging station with 300 kW is wrong.
If you have any questions on this topic, please write
CCS plug (Combo 2)
Type 2 connector